This work introduces the concept of rocking structures with the property of self–centering, with a special focus on Rocking Walls (RWs), as damage–controlling structures, to incorporate them into the new Seismic Design Code of El Salvador. In this regard, analytical models using finite element methods based on the multiple axial spring macro model and the shear flexure interaction multi–vertical line element model (SFI–MVLEM) are developed in the software OpenSees, to predict the non–linear behavior of both RWs and Reinforced Concrete (RC) walls, in order to analytically evaluate the influence of large axial loads in terms of energy and provide design recommendations for RWs to control axial–flexural behavior and to calculate design capacities and demands. The analysis of the influence of axial load revealed that base shear increases with axial load ratio, which is more accentuated in RWs than in RC walls with the 86%. The hysteretic damping, in contrast to base shear, reduces for RC walls, while for RWs increases, this due to the inelastic energy dissipation, which depends on both strength and ductility, and is essentially the same in spite of the axial load ratio for RC walls and increases with axial load ratio in RWs, because of hysteretic behavior.
Keywords: Self–Centering, Rocking, OpenSees, Hysteretic Damping, Residual Drift.