1. Empirical attenuation formula for estimating PGA, PGV and response spectra

Many researchers have studied the attenuation characteristics of strong ground motion for a long time. They proposed many empirical attenuation formulas to estimate peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and response spectra. Several formulas are selected and shown in this page according to the following criterion;

- Published recently,

- Applicable to near-source region,

- Based on the observed record in wide area,

- Referred or applied frequently.

Finally, thirty-one formulas which are summarized in Table 1.1 are selected and following ten items are compiled.

1) Reference

2) Estimated physical parameter

3) Used strong motion data

4) Style of faulting

5) Ground condition

6) Definition of magnitude

7) Definition of source distance

8) Definition of horizontal component

9) Applicability written in the paper

10) Empirical attenuation formula

Table 1.1  Summary of empirical attenuation formula

 Tectonic Environment Shallow Crustal Shallow Crustal Shallow Crustal Subduction Extension and Compression Shallow (h<25km) Shallow (h<30km) Style of Faulting - Reverse - Reverse/Oblique - Otherwise - Strike slip - Reverse slip - Mechanism not specified - Extensional - Interface - Intra slab - Normal - Thrust/Strike slip Ground Condition - Rock or shallow soil - Deep soil evaluated by average shear velocity over upper 30m - Rock - Soil - Stiff - Shallow Alluvium - Deep Alluvium - Rock - Shallow soil - Deep soil - Rock - Alluvium - Rock - Stiff soil - Soft soil Other Effect Hanging Wall Acceleration ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Velocity ○ ○ Sa (5%) ○ (0.1 - 5.0sec) ○ (0.1 - 2.0sec) ○ (0.075 - 3.0 sec) ○ (0.1 - 2.0sec) Sv (5%) ○ (0.1 - 2.0sec) ○ (0.04 - 4.0sec) Magnitude Mw Mw Mw 5.5£Ms ML<5.5 Mw Ms, Mw Ms Ms Distance *1) A B B B, D A D B, D B, D Component H ○(geometric mean) ○(random horizontal component) ○(geometric mean) ○(larger) ○(geometric mean) ○ ○ ○(larger) V ○ ○ SourceData World Wide, 1940-1994, 4.4

 Author Field Kalkan & Gülkan Kalkan & Gülkan Midorikawa &Ohtake Sunuwar et al. Takahashi et al. Takai et al. Tectonic Environment Sallow crustal Shallow crustal Crustal Intra-plate Inter-plate Crustal Interface Slab Shallow crustal Intra-plate Inter-plate Style of Faulting - Strike-slip - Reverse-slip - Reverse - Strike-slip - Normal - Unknown - Reverse - Strike-slip - Normal - Unknown - Reverse - Strike-slip - Normal - Unknown Ground Condition - Rock - Soil - Soft soil - Rock - Soil - Soft soil Stiff site (AVS30 is about 600m/s) - Rock - Hard soil - Medium soil - Soft soil Other Effect Acceleration ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Velocity ○ ○ Sa (5%) ○ (0.3, 1.0, 3.0sec) ○ (0.05-3.00sec) ○ (0.02-5.00sec) Sv (5%) Magnitude Mw Mw Mw Mw MJ Mw MJ Distance closest distance to the vertical projection of rupture closest horizontal distance closest horizontal distance fault distance hypocentral distance source distance hypocentral distance Component H ○ (average) ○ ○ (larger) ○ (larger) ○ (geometric mean) ○ V ○ ○ Source Data Southern California, 1934-1994, 5.15.0, depth<162km, Japan 249events, 4192records, Iran and Western 21events, 208records Japan(K-NET, Tohoku and Hokkaido), 1997-2003, 5.0

 Author Yanxiang YU & Yuxian HU Bragato and Slejko Liu & Tsai Kanno et al. Kataoka et al. Tectonic Environment Crustal earthquake Style of Faulting Ground Condition Rock TWN area : whole Taiwan region CHY area : southwestern Taiwan IWA area :  northeastern Taiwan NTO area :  central Taiwan Other Effect Acceleration ○ ○ ○ ○ Velocity ○ ○ ○ Sa (5%) ○ (0.04-20sec) ○ (0.05-2sec) ○ (0.05-5.00sec) Sv (5%) ○(1%) (2-20sec) Magnitude ML ML Mw Mw Mw Distance epicentral distance epicentral distance or closest horizontal distance to the vertical projection of the rupture hypocentral distance source distance source distance Component H ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ V ○ ○ Source Data Southern California, 1991-2001, 5.07900 Japan(K-NET,KiK-net), California, Turkey Japan 1963-2003, California 1971-1994 Turkey 1999, Mw>5.5, Japan 184events, 11542records, California and Turkey 10events, 377records Japan, 1964-2004, 6.9

 Author Morikawa et al. Uchiyama & Midorikawa Zhao et al. Campbell & Bozorgnia Tectonic Environment Inter-plate Slab Crustal Interface Slab Shallow crustal Style of Faulting - Reverse - Strike-slip - Normal - Unknown Normal-Normal Oblique (30deg. < rake < 150deg.) Reverse-Reverse Oblique (-150deg. < rake < -30deg.) Ground Condition Vs 500m/s (average over the upper 30m) - Rock - Hard soil - Medium soil - Soft soil Represented by AVS30 Other Effect Hanging-wall effect Basin response effect Linear-Non Linear site response Acceleration ○ ○ ○ Velocity ○ ○ Sa (5%) ○ (0.05-0.45sec) ○ (0.02-5.0sec) ○ (0.05-5.00sec) ○ (0.01-10.00sec) Sv (5%) Magnitude Mw Mw Mw Mw Distance source distance shortest distance to the rupture surface source distance AB Component H ○ (geometric mean) ○ (geometric mean) GMRot150 (Boore etal., 2006): Orientation-independent geometrio mean horizontal component V × Source Data Japan(Pacific plate), 1996-2003, 5.5